Meal timing and late eating as a modulator of cancer risk and risk-associated biomarkers

Meal timing and late eating as a modulator of cancer risk and risk-associated biomarkers

[Rhonda]: So these three factors that are
known, the fasting, high-fasting insulin, the high free estrogen… [Ruth]: Right. [Rhonda]: …and the high inflammatory markers. [Ruth]: Right. [Rhonda]: So as measured by certain biomarkers
like C-reactive protein. [Ruth]: Right. [Rhonda]: So these are all associated with,
in some, cases even two to threefold increased risk. [Ruth]: Yeah, I say definitely twofold and
maybe a little bit more. I think that’s generally what we…what the
metric we use, each one of them increases the risk individually by twofold. Combination wise we don’t know, it’s probably
not quite additive, but they still would have a combined effect too that’s, you know, reason
to look at all these different pathways. But those are definitely the three major metabolic
pathways that we think feed into. Having kind of fertile soil so that when these
DNA changes happen, they’re in a place where they’re kind of like fertile soil and more
likely to go to an invasive tumor type. [Rhonda]: Okay. And what’s so interesting about this is that,
your work, so your work and the work of others is showing that these three different biomarkers,
let’s say, they can be modified by changing your lifestyle pattern. [Ruth]: Right. Much of my research lately has focused on
timing of meals, which I think is a little bit of a newer hypothesis. We all, you know, evolved to eat during the
day when we’re out getting our food and then fast at night when we’re in a rest state. But now with, you know, modern lighting and
with modern lifestyles and short…longer and longer work weeks, you know, our meal
patterns less and less resemble the way we evolved to eat. And we believe that it’s very metabolically
detrimental to eat a lot of energy and then right away lay down. You know, what are you doing? You’re laying down, you don’t need to have
all the energy on board and all that metabolism going on, when actually you should be in a
fasting catabolic state. [Rhonda]: And most people probably actually
eat one of their largest meals in the evening. [Ruth]: Right. Which is just so counter…and just even in
a common sense way, why do you need all that energy right before you’re about to become
completely comatose? It makes no sense, right? You really need the energy during the day,
you know, when you’re busy up walking. [Rhonda]: That’s a very good point. And I think you also mentioned another important
point and that is eating during the day when we’re supposed to eat, and timing it with
our circadian rhythm. [Ruth]: Right. [Rhonda]: Which is the biological clock inside
of our…every cell we’ve got a master regulator and different, you know, tissues which we
can talk about in a minute. But that master clock, what’s interesting
is that it does…it…you know, between 10% to 15% of the human genome is regulated by
these clocks. And about 50% of those genes are involved
in metabolism. [Ruth]: Right. [Rhonda]: And humans are the most insulin
sensitive upon waking, you know, first thing in the morning. And then as the day goes, insulin sensitivity
goes down. And so, you know, eating your biggest meal
in the evening when you’re the most insulin insensitive would increase one of those biomarkers
you’re talking about. [Ruth]: Absolutely, right. Or just metabolically dysregulate you which
is what we’re trying to have regulated metabolism, and that definitely dysregulates it. And the whole circadian rhythm concept is
the idea that, as you mentioned, the master clock is entrained to light, you know, it
responds to light. So the master clock’s getting the signal,
let’s say, in the evening, you’re done. But if you’re eating, the peripheral clocks
like in your liver are going, “No, we’re waking up, we’re getting energy.” And we believe that when those two clocks
are out of sync that that itself leads to some type of metabolic dysregulation. And we don’t have fully metabolic, you know,
or molecular understanding of exactly how this works. But it’s a pretty solid theory, at least what
we’ve seen in animal research. [Rhonda]: Yeah

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